In a language resource designed for mass consumption, there is no quicker disincentive to go further than the more technical linguistics jargon relative to, for instance, when to use either of the two articles ti or iti — and so we shall try to avoid them for now. We shall instead look at illustrative phrase or sentence structure situations as to their preferred usage.
- Ti introduces the subject of the sentence. Example 1: Agsangsangit ti ubing [subject]. <The baby [subject] is crying.>; Nanglaylay ti mula [subject] ti mannalon. <The farmer’s plant [subject] wilted.> Dagiti (plural of ti): Example 2: Agsangsangit dagiti ubbing. <The babies are crying.> Nanglaylay dagiti mulmula ti mannalon. <The farmer’s plants wilted.>
- Ti introduces the subject of a phrase. Example: ti ubing [subject] iti kuarto <the baby [subject] in the room>. Dagiti (plural of ti): dagiti ubbing iti kuarto
- Iti introduces and is part of the prepositional phrase. Example 1: Agay-ayam ti ubing iti kuarto [“iti kuarto” is the prepositional phrase] <The baby is playing in the room [“in the room” is the prepositional phrase]. Example 2: Nangted ti kuarta iti kandidato [“iti kandidato” is the prepositional phrase]. <He gave money to the candidate [“to the candidate” is the prepositional phrase].> Kadagiti (plural of iti): Agay-ayam dagiti ubbing kadagiti ku-kuartoda. <The babies are playing in their rooms.>; Nangted ti kuarta kadagiti ka-kandidato. <He gave money to the candidates.>
- Iti introduces the direct object of a transitive verb. Example 1: Nagmula ti mannalon iti mais [“mais” is the direct object of the transitive verb “nagmula”.] <The farmer planted corn [“corn” is the direct object of “planted”.> Example 2: Nagluto iti dinardaraan [“dinardaraan” is the direct object of “nagluto”] <He cooked blood pudding [“pudding” modified by “blood” is the direct object of the verb “cooked”.> Kadagiti (plural of iti): Nagmula ti mannalon kadagiti kaykayo. <The farmer planted trees.>; Nagpuros kadagiti bungbunga <He gathered fruits>
Of course, there are some other forms: ta/dagita, ita/kadagita, etc. They behave in a similar manner as ti/dagiti, iti/kadagiti. Various forms of certain pronouns exhibit similar behavior.