A Study of Second-Position Enclitics in Cebuano

Michael Tanangkingsing

Michael Tanangkingsing

By Michael Tanangkingsing

Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 52, no. 1, June 2013


Second-position enclitics in Cebuano are syntactically dispensable and truth- conditionally irrelevant; however, they add emotional flavor to utterances. This study investigates second-position enclitics in Cebuano, including their form and how they are used to express stance. The objective of this study is to inves- tigate the form and functions of two groups of second-position enclitics, “aspectual” enclitics, and emphasizer and intensifier enclitics, as well as to examine their distribution in enclitic clusters. Conversational data show that the “aspectual” enclitics convey attitudinal stance: =na can convey emphasis, determination, and desperation, while =pa is used to imply “incompletion” or “lack,” leading to annoyance. In addition, I discuss =man, illustrating how it is used for downtoning and for showing politeness. I also tease apart the mean- ings of four seemingly synonymous high-frequency enclitics that differ in their relative frequency and preferred position in a cluster. As to function, =ka’ayo and =gyud serve to emphasize and intensify, but =ka’ayo has a scope over a predicate, while =gyud has scope over an entire proposition. On the other hand, =lagi and =gud have to be inspected in discourse: =lagi has the addi- tional function of asserting one’s stance on the hearers, while =gud has the additional element of disagreement or dissatisfaction. Finally, I propose a rela- tive ordering involving these two groups of enclitics in clusters.


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