A Study of Second-Position Enclitics in Cebuano

Michael Tanangkingsing

Michael Tanangkingsing

By Michael Tanangkingsing

Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 52, no. 1, June 2013


Second-position enclitics in Cebuano are syntactically dispensable and truth- conditionally irrelevant; however, they add emotional flavor to utterances. This study investigates second-position enclitics in Cebuano, including their form and how they are used to express stance. The objective of this study is to inves- tigate the form and functions of two groups of second-position enclitics, “aspectual” enclitics, and emphasizer and intensifier enclitics, as well as to examine their distribution in enclitic clusters. Conversational data show that the “aspectual” enclitics convey attitudinal stance: =na can convey emphasis, determination, and desperation, while =pa is used to imply “incompletion” or “lack,” leading to annoyance. In addition, I discuss =man, illustrating how it is used for downtoning and for showing politeness. I also tease apart the mean- ings of four seemingly synonymous high-frequency enclitics that differ in their relative frequency and preferred position in a cluster. As to function, =ka’ayo and =gyud serve to emphasize and intensify, but =ka’ayo has a scope over a predicate, while =gyud has scope over an entire proposition. On the other hand, =lagi and =gud have to be inspected in discourse: =lagi has the addi- tional function of asserting one’s stance on the hearers, while =gud has the additional element of disagreement or dissatisfaction. Finally, I propose a rela- tive ordering involving these two groups of enclitics in clusters.


A Study on the Behavior of Cebuano Pronouns in Discourse

Michael Tanangkingsing

Michael Tanangkingsing

By Michael Tanangkingsing
National Taipei University of Technology

Concentric: Studies in Linguistics, May 2013

Sometimes reference grammars are limited in space and time and thus cannot always describe some given aspects of a language very accurately. Linguistics studies certainly help to fill this gap. Using narrative and conversational data, this paper attempts to accomplish this and aims to contribute to Cebuano linguistics and the study of pronouns by looking at two phenomena involving pronominal expressions in Cebuano discourse. First, I will show that two third-person pronouns never co-occur in the same clause. In transitive clauses with two human participants, only one will be referred to using a pronominal form; the other one will either be in zero form, if more topical, or in lexical form, if less topical. Second, I will investigate the factors that lead to a choice between the genitive form and the possessive form in expressing the Actor participant in a transitive event clause, identified as definiteness, verb type, and structure of the verb complex. The use of a possessive form will involve the pre-posing of the pronoun form to a pre-verb slot, which may also be a factor that contributes to word order change.

Key words: Cebuano, pronoun, discourse, definiteness


The Dialectology of Cebuano

Divine Angeli P. Endriga

By Divine Angeli P. Endriga
University of Asia and the Pacific
University of the Philippines-Diliman

Paper presented at the
1st Philippine 
Conference Workshop
 MotherTongue-Based Multilingual Education
held February 18-20, 2010
at Cagayan de Oro City.

ABSTRACT: This paper is a description of the dialectology of Cebuano spoken in the provinces of Bohol, Cebu and Davao. It notes the similarities and differences between the dialects with regards to phonology (only consonants and vowels are included) and other constructions relevant to the study. Most of the data were gathered from Cebuano speakers from the respective provinces.

The author hopes that this study will be helpful in writing materials, to decide on a standard orthography etc. It will also help in understanding the nuances of Cebuano, so it can be taught easily and facilitate easier shift from the mother tongue into Filipino and English when students reach the stage of learning them.

Continue reading

MLE launching for Region 7

Ched Arzadon

On November 6, 2010, Ched Arzadon wrote:

Above are links to two newspaper articles re the MLE launching for Region 7 which was held last Friday, November 4, 2010 at Ecotech Center, Cebu. I was fortunate to witness the event organized by Akademiyang Bisaya Inc (ABI). It was their 2nd founding anniversary and it was also the endorsement of their English-Cebuano dictionary, Alphabet, Spelling and Grammar book for MLE use.

Akademiyang Bisaya Inc (ABI) is made up of Cebuano writers, HEI educators, DepEd officials, local government officials and other concerned citizens. Before ABI was organized, there were only writers groups like the Ludabi and other Cebuano language advocate groups led by Mayor Sitoy of Cordova and college professors like Dr. Jess Tirol who uses the Cebuano language in teaching engineering and math subjects. However, when DepEd Order 74 s2009 “Institutionalizing Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education” came out, these writers groups and various advocate groups joined forces with those in the education sector in order to provide support to the MLE policy.

Once there were four irreconcilable groups asserting their own Cebuano alphabet and spelling but for the purpose of promoting MLE, these groups worked (and debated) hard to reach a consensus so that there will be a standard Cebuano orthography to be used in the classrooms. Now it would be easier to write children’s stories and other instructional materials to be used for MLE pilot schools. I was truly inspired with the humility of their members (though men and women of high stature) to serve the needs of DepEd’s MLE program. During the event, Dr. Ricaredo Borgonio, the DepEd regional director and his team, gave an exhaustive presentation about DO 74 and how it would be implemented in Region 7. It would be great if every DepEd regional official would have that sense of vision and ownership.

This is the 2nd local launching of a regionwide MLE strategy. The first one was held last August 26 for Region 8 at Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City. The next one will be held next month for Region 5 and Region 1. If you plan to launch your own MLE strategy, please let us know.

On November 13-23, we will be conducting the second phase of MLE Trainers Training to be held at Iloilo City. The first phase was conducted at Tagaytay City last September (the participants were DepEd regional trainers not selected UP teachers as reported by Cebu Daily News). The trainers group is going to complete the MLE curriculum adaptation plans and their corresponding teachers guides. One of their tasks is to develop stories for pre-school and grade 1 using the local languages.

Ched Arzadon

In a related development, 170+ Talaytayan MLE sent this email on November 7, 2010:

Here’s an insightful article:  “Bisdak tongue” by Sofia Logarta Madilena de la Cerna, Inquirer Global Nation.  Bisdak means Bisaya Dako or Great Bisaya. The writer rues about the fact that MLE is implemented only in public schools.  She should be informed that DepEd Order No. 74 s2009 does not limit the implementation in public schools alone. The policy covers both public and private schools.

By the way, there is a private school for rich kids in Teachers Village where they use English as primary MOI (since that is the predominant L1) but they also teach Tagalog as L2. It is like the heritage language courses being offered to immigrants in the US.  I hope there is a private school in Cebu that would dare to use Cebuano in school.

A Pedagogic Grammar for Cebuano-Visayan


Angel O. Pesirla

(Presented at the 1st MLE Conference, “Reclaiming the Right to Learn in One’s Own Language,” Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City, Feb 18-20, 2010.)

Courtesy of J. G. Rubrico

INTRODUCTION: This academic paper is premised on the need for a Cebuano-Visayan pedagogic grammar based on descriptively adequate and powerful linear description as a required academic component in the General Education Curriculum for B.A. and B.S. programs per CNU B.O.R. approval in 2000 of the CMO # 44, s. 1997 full implementation.

A pedagogic grammar presents the structural description of a language for teaching-learning purposes. This includes basically the making of descriptive statements about the target language to be learned through teaching in such a form that its structures (sound, word, sentence) will be more readily learned (Corder,  1973).

This grammatical description must be observationally adequate (a measure of the degree to which the statements of a description accord with the observed relevant facts), and descriptively adequate (a measure of the degree to which it succeeds in corporating all the facts which the goals of the description consider relevant). Furthermore, it must be more economical or powerful in the degree to which it accounts for the same facts with a smaller number of statements or rules, or alternatively, more facts with the same number of rules (1973).

For the complete article, click on A Pedagogic Grammar for Cebuano-Visayan lecture.